Sourdemale / Surdeval / Surdevalle
Richard de SURDEVAL, had brother Robert, from Sourdeval le Barre near the town of Mortaine
Matilda de SURDEVAL
Spouse: Ralph PAYNEL died circa 1108-9
Children: William; Jordan married Gertrude the daughter of Robert Fozzard & had no heirs; Elias became a monk; Alexander
The biographia Leodiensis; or, Biographical sketches of the worthies of..."This Ralph Paynel, the first Norman lord who exercised jurisdiction over Leeds, was one of the leaders of the Norman army who brought his little contingent to swell the ranks of that band whose fortunes were to be won or lost at Hastings and one of the most favoured was he of the many favoured adventurers who won that terrible battle. His paternal chateau stood either upon the summit of a hill in the departement de la Manche, whose sloping sides bore the picturesque little town of Haie Paisnel with its beautiful and fascinating aspect and whose base was washed by the waters of the river Thar, or it was the renowned fortress of Moutiers Hubert celebrated in Anglo Norman history for the subsequent actions of one of his descendants. Moutiers Hubert has certainly ever been the cradle of the family of Paynel and if we recollect that the knight who first forded the Aire was called Lisois des Moutiers, by his name we shall recognize in him a feudal tenant of a Paynel of the House of Moutiers Hubert. Sprung from an old Saindinavian stock, Ralph's Norman ancestors appear to have retained the Viking's contempt for Christianity until at length that contempt gained for them the generic appellation of Paganus or the Pagan which afterwards became softened or corrupted into Paganellus and eventually changed into Paynel or Paganel. Ralph, the hero of the conquest, certainly possessed all the characteristic bravery of his ancestors although there are the most conclusive proofs that their pagan contempt for the worship of Christ had in him changed into the devotion of a true Christian without as they supposed operating inimically to the development of that fierce courage which marks the unrestrained warrior. But brave and warlike as the bravest of his redoubtable ancestors must have been, Ralph Paynel for not only do we find him possessed in fee of Leeds Headingley and the other adjacent manors but also of vast domains in several parts of the country which must have been his reward for other and former conquests. In Yorkshire the principal part of his personal estates lay along the banks of the Ouse and the Aire at its junction with the parent stream and as those districts lay in the route of the Normans during their first invasion they were probably by anticipation of eventual success given to him as the reward of his services during that campaign. The success thus anticipated followed and with it the disposal of the lands formerly belonging to a noble Northumbrian named Marlesweyn who, along with Edgar Atheling Cospatric and other celebrated chieftains, had been most prominent in their opposition to the Normans. Drax, Armine, Camblesforth, and Barlow manors formerly belonging to Marlesweyn were given to him in capite as well as considerable estates in the city and neighbourhood of York, Leeds, and Headingley as we have seen were at the same time possessed by him under Ilbert de Laci and the service due for them was reckoned at one knight's fee and a half. Adel, Arthington, Burdonhead, and Eccup devolved upon him in right of his wife Matilda the daughter and co heiress if not sole heiress of Richard de Surdeval baron of Surdeval in Normandy a town near his paternal residence. This Richard, one of the first band of Norman adventurers, had obtained large grants of land in the neighbourhood of Leeds which fell to Ralph Paynel on his marriage with Matilda and for long afterwards were the possessions of the lord of the manor of Leeds. Leeds however was never the chief seat of the Paynels. From the earliest period of their possession, Drax was undoubtedly their home and there they immediately built a strong castle which was doubtless constructed by Ralph about the same time as was Pontefract castle by Ilbert de Laci. The castle of Leeds about which so very little is known was probably built simultaneously with the other two but one thing is certain, that it never was the important feudal fortress they were being rather a strongly fortified manor house similar in its nature and construction to the one erected by Ilbert de Laci at Rothwell. Ralph Paynel founded the priory of the Holy Trinity in York and gave to it the churches of Leeds and Adel in 1089. In a charter beginning in a remarkably grandiloquent strain he states that "I Ralph, surnamed Paynel, inflamed by the fire of divine love desiring to treasure up in heaven what I can after this life receive a hundredfold having at the city of York of the fief of the king of the English a certain church constructed in the honour of the Holy Trinity formerly adorned with canons and rents of farms and ecclesiastical ornaments but now by sins which cry for vengeance almost reduced to nothing in the desire of re establishing it in the service of God which has been abandoned, I have delivered it to the blessed Martin of Marmoutier and to his monks to be in their possession for ever for the soul of my lord King William and of his wife Matilda and for the redemption and good estate of the realm of his son William who has also willingly authorized this gift with the assent of my wife Matilda and of my sons William, Jordan, Elias and Alexander in order that the abbot of Marmoutier may have free faculty of ordaining the establishment of the said church and the distribution of its endowments and the introduction of monks serving God in the aforesaid church hereafter so that we may deserve to have in time to come a share of the blessed resurrection through their assiduous prayers." He then proceeds to enumerate the list of benefactions he made to the said church a list which speaks highly as to his religious enthusiasm and in which we find that in his vill of Drax he gives one fishery and the tithe of the rest of the fisheries and also the church of Leeds and whatsoever belongs to it and the tithe of the demesne and half a carucate of land which Reginald had held in increase of the glebe which belonged to the church. Ralph's gift of the church of Adel is positive evidence of the existence of a Saxon church anterior to Domesday although that record neither mentions a church nor a priest and from its silence it has been supposed that at the time of the conquest there was no church existing there. The donation could not refer to the present structure which is known to have been built by the monks of Holy Trinity in the lifetime of William Paynel who succeeded to his father's estates in 1108 or 1109 and enjoyed them until about 1136. Prior to May 1108, Henry I at York and in the presence of the same Ralph Paynel confirmed the gift of the church of Leddes and the other donations and that confirmation was ratified by Archbishop Thomas the second of that name who was consecrated on Sunday June 27, 1109 and died February 16, 1114. Ralph Paynel was the second vicecomes or sheriff of York having succeeded in the reign of William Rufus. Hugh Fitz Baudric or Baudry who had been made governor of the city of York in 1068 when that city was the furthest northerly position to which the Normans had then penetrated. He is supposed to have died about the year 1108 or 1109 and was probably interred in the church of the priory of Holy Trinity which he had so liberally endowed. For other information see the History of the Priory of Holy Trinity and Thierry's History of the Norman Conquest &c.
Domesday Studies: RADULFUS PAGENEL. This was Ralph Paynell of Drax Yorkshire. He acquired his Devon and Somerset estates in virtue of a general grant of the escheated estates of Marlesweyn one of the rebels of 1069 and up to that date Sheriff of Lincolnshire. A descendant of Ralph Paynell, marrying Juliana de Bahuntune, acquired Bampton and other estates in Devon and Somerset parcel of the Domesday Barony of Walter de Douai sometime called Walter de Bahuntune, Thus in the reign of Stephen there were two Baronies of Paynell, one seated at Drax the other at Bamptone. A very tangled story ensues. All we can say here and with confidence is that the elder male line of Paynell of Drax expired in the reign of Henry II that many of the estates of the said line went to collaterals claiming through Alice Paynell, granddanghter of Ralph Paynel, now under notice danghter of William Paynell and danghter and sole heir of a wife of the said William viz of Avicia le Meschin al Avicia de Roumelli who was danghter and co heir of William le Meschin and Cecilia de Roumelli, that Drax itself and many associated estates went to other collaterals whose claim was in a male line viz as descended from William Paynel of Bridgewater and Bampton the husband of Juliana de Bahuntune. The heirs of Paynell of Drax Bridgewater &c adhered to Philip of France in the reign of John and so lost their English estates though one of the family was reclaiming a part of them as late as AD 1261. Meantime another scion of the House of Paynel had made good a claim or established a plea which gained some part of the forfeited estates. He for aught we know retained the same. So far as our purpose is concerned the gist of all this is that wherever we find a Somerset or Devon estate to have been held in the 13th century by Manrice de Gant or by Hugh de Nevile or by any Luttrel or any Paynell we shall do well to look for the antecedents of such estate in the Domesday Fiefs of Ralph Paynell and Walter de Douai.
THE YORKSHIRE Archeological and Topographical JOURNAL: RICARDUS DE SURDEVAL and Nigel Fossard qv were the two great tenants of the count of Mortain in this county. Richard was holding of him out of some 180 manors no less than 55 in various parts of Yorkshire more than most of the tenants in capite possessed. He seems to have accompanied his lord from his comte of Mortain and to have come from Sourdeval le Barre near the town of Mortain. Most of the count's manors in Cleveland were held by Richard, several manors also in and about Bridlington, but all these were still waste. Others he held in the neighbourhood of Doncaster and an isolated estate of 5 manors, of which perhaps Arthington was the best, acquired by the count in the territory of Ilbert de Laci. What had been earl Edwin's lordship in Hooton and Bilham formerly rated at 8 but now 100s, 10 carucates being taxed was the most valuable estate held by Richard who had lands in demesne there and probably a residence. The name of Richard de Surdeval occurs several times in the Claims which the commissioners of the Survey left undecided 39. Richard has not been met with as a benefactor to the monasteries nor even as a witness to a charter. He probably died not long after the date of the survey and the manors of Hooton and Bilham, Thurnscoe with its soke, the 5 manors near Leeds and Barton, le Street near New Malton we find in the next reign vested in Ralph Paynel apparently in right of his Avise. Matilda who will have been daughter and coheiress if not sole heiress of Richard. Mr Stapleton Holy Trinity Priory p 15 In giving part of these lands by his charter endowing Holy Trinity priory York. Ralph associates Matilda his wife with him as though her assent were necessary and though William was his son and heir. Jordan Paynel a younger son succeeded to these lands as if heir of his mother but dying without issue. Alexander his next brother inherited them and left heirs male who retained some of them for many years. We have no doubt a brother of Richard in Robert de Sourdeval one of those Normans settled in Italy who went with Bohemund prince of Tarentum to the Holy Land in the first crusade 1096 Ord Vit IX iv. Richard however must have brought one kinsman at least with him for the name did not become extinct and in Eudo de Sourdeval the second abbot of Furness in the reign of Henry I, and in Peter and William de Surdevals who as tenants of Walter Espec the baron of Helmsley witnessed the foundation charter of Rievaulx abbey 1131 Old Mon i 729, we probably have nephews William de Surdevalle in the next generation gave lands in Ampleforth to Byland abbey ib 1032 Ricardo was a vassal of Gislebert Tyson holding lands of him at Anlaby and Bubwith.
The Battle abbey roll: With some account of the Norman lineages, Volume 3: Sourdemale for Surdeval as it stands in Leland's list. Ricardus de Surdeval in 1086 was one of the two great tenants of the Count of Mortaine in Yorkshire holding of him out of some one hundred and eighty manors no less than fifty five in various parts of the county more than most of the tenants in capite possessed. He seems to have accompanied his lord from his comte of Mortaine and to have come from Sourdeval le Barre near the town of Mortaine. We have no doubt a brother of Richard in Robert de Sourdeval, one of those Normans settled in Italy, who went with Bohemund Prince of Tarentum to the Holy Land in the first crusade Ord Vit ix iv. Richard has not been met with as a benefactor to the monasteries nor even as witness to a charter. He probably died not long after the date of the Survey and some of his manors were in the next reign vested in Ralph Paynell, apparently in right of his wife Matilda who will have been daughter and co heiress if not sole heiress of Richard. He must however have brought one kinsman at least with him and in Eudo de Surdeval the second Abbot of Furness in the reign of Henry I and in Peter and William de Surdeval who as tenants of Walter Espec the Baron of Helmsley witness the foundation charter of Rievaulx Abbey 1131, we probably have nephews William de Surdevalle in the next generation gave lands in Ampleforth to Byland Abbey As Ellis The Seigneurs de Sourdeval were according to M de Gerville a branch of the House of Verdun and took the name of Le Moigne in Normandy. They were long seated in Holderness. Amandus de Surdival in 1280 was a benefactor of Routh Priory and John de Surdeval with Thomas de Monceaux 4 Ed III received the King's mandate to appoint and array the men of Holderness and lead them by night and by day to join the King at Carlisle and proceed to the Scottish marches, no one capable of bearing arms to be excused under forfeiture of body and goods Paulsoris Holderness. This John was of Beningholme but Amandus was seated at Routh and sometimes styled De Routh the name borne by all his descendants. They continued there till the time of Henry VII when Brian Routh's heiress married John Cult and bore Barry of six Gules and Azure a bendlet engrailed Sable .Two brass effigies within the altar rails of Routh Church commemorate Sir John de Routh and his wife living in 1420 and another figure of a crusader brought there from the church yard is traditionally believed to represent one of the family. This latter is of the time of Henry III and greatly shattered Sir John and his wife as good Lancastrians both wear the collar of SS, The unusual mode in which the knight's anclace is attached to the right side should be noticed. This mode of fastening is visible only on a very few brasses as here and at Brabourne in Kent. The name of Surdeval is found in Yorkshire as late as. 1539 At the Dissolution of the monasteries a presbyter named Randulph Surdevell received a pension of £6 Ibid.
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Prepared by Karen E. Smith Howell -
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